Pathology of the oral cavity means there is a variance from the normal, healthy tissue. It could be benign or cancerous in nature. Early detection is key. Some signs and symptoms include white or red patches on the tongue or gums, sore spots or ulcers that fail to heal, lumps or raised lesions of the oral tissue, and/or enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. Sore throat, hoarseness, and difficulty swallowing or chewing could also be symptoms of concern. A biopsy helps to determine the nature of the condition so that the appropriate treatment plan can be formulated.